Gerry Grogan – Institute of Public Administration

This paper is derived from the author’s research into critical thinking and cognitive tools. The paper is based on empirical evidence in higher education. It attempts to show at very high level of detail the mechanisms by which electronic cognitive tools achieve their critical thinking effects. The paper goes on to show how when technology is used as cognitive tools it can produce transformation of learning. It uses this emergent theory as a way of explaining why for instance the pedagogic impact of learning technologies has been so disappointing and how these technologies have tended to replicate rather than transform.